Astrophotography has advanced dramatically in the last 5 years due to the advent of relatively cheap CCD cameras and image-processing software. A backyard astronomer can now take digital images that rival what the best telescopes produced a decade ago. Astrophotography uses digital SLR cameras (such as the Canon EOS 60DA) or dedicated CCD cameras, CMOS cameras, auto-guiders, and image-processing software.
A decent discussion of astrophotography could fill an entire website, but here are are some products that may spark your interest:
Telescopes designed for the sole purpose of astrophotography (and not visual viewing with an eyepiece) are called astrographs.